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绿色矿山建设任重道远 The Construction of Green Mines Is a Long Road

2015-10-20      来源:中国矿业报     作者:刘艾瑛
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  [建设背景]环境欠账与当前形势

  [建设背景]环境欠账与当前形势

  过去,由于一些矿山企业只重视资源开采、一味追求经济指标,忽视对当地环境的保护,更不考虑环保在内的综合效益,严重破坏了矿产资源所在地的生态环境,导致现在甚至有部分矿山企业的经济效益远远无法承担恢复治理环境所需费用。这些现象造成了恶劣的社会影响,一些经济落后但具有资源潜力的地区,在权衡矿业项目是否上马时,即使明知项目有可观的经济预期,也常常是犹豫,举棋不定,更有甚者谈“矿”色变,出于保护生态环境的考虑,不再受理探矿权与采矿权的申请,完全封杀了矿业项目。因此,对资源的开发与利用被不少人误解为是污染的祸首。而当前最为迫切需要摆脱经济困境的却恰恰是上述地区,如此一来,也就堵死了这些地区将资源优势转化为经济优势的一条通路。其实,资源完全可以做到清洁利用,人们在享受其创造的便利与价值时,同样也能享受到碧水蓝天,所以只有建设绿色矿山才能让资源开发与环境保护协调发展。

  另一方面,我国矿业在经历十年“黄金期”后虽然得到了长足发展,但同时也让环境承受了巨大的压力,正如国土资源部部长姜大明在今年全国国土资源工作会议上所言:“从资源环境约束看,承载力正在逼近‘天花板’,严格保护和节约利用国土资源是大势所趋。过去,资源环境空间相对较大,无论土地资源还是矿产资源的开发,对生态环境虽有影响,但还在可控范围内。现在,许多地方资源环境承载能力已经达到或接近上限,继续实施大规模、高强度的国土资源开发活动,资源难以承载,环境难以容纳……统筹国土资源开发与生态环境保护。”述上所述,绿色矿山建设已然变得迫切而必要。

  Backgrond : Environment debt & Force of circumstances

  2009年年初,国家发改委、国土资源部联合发布了《全国矿产资源规划(2008~2015年)》,明确提出发展绿色矿业的要求,并确定到2020年基本建立绿色矿山格局的战略目标。

  紧接着,为全面落实规划目标任务,2010年8月13日,国土资源部就发展绿色矿业、建设绿色矿山出台了更为具体的工作指导意见,进一步明确了总体思路和基本原则。

  意见的总体思路是深入贯彻落实科学发展观,按照国家转变经济增长方式的战略要求,将发展绿色矿业、建设绿色矿山作为保障矿业健康可持续发展的重要抓手,认真落实全国矿产资源规划提出的目标任务和部署要求,坚持规划统筹、政策配套、试点先行、整体推进,通过绿色矿山建设促进矿业发展方式的转变,构建规范矿产资源开发利用秩序的长效机制。

  其基本原则主要有以下四条:一是坚持政府引导。强化政策激励,积极引导,组织做好试点示范,建立健全绿色矿山建设标准体系,有序推进;二是落实企业责任。鼓励矿山企业树立科学发展理念、严格规范管理、推进科技创新、加强文化建设,落实节约资源、节能减排、保护环境、促进矿区和谐等社会责任;三是加强行业自律。充分发挥行业协会桥梁和纽带作用,密切联系矿山企业,加强宣传,扩大共识,加强行业自律;四是搞好政策配套。充分运用经济、行政等多种手段,制定有利于促进资源合理利用、环境保护等方面的政策措施,建立完善制度,推动绿色矿山建设。

  some mining enterprises used to attach importance only to resource extraction and economic indicators, pay little attention to local environment protection or its comprehensive benefit. This led to destruction of local ecological environment,some enterprises even can't afford the cost of mine environmental recovery and rehabilitation. Such phenomena caused bad social influences that some backward areas with resource potential were of two minds when weighting new project in spite of a considerable economic outlook. What's worse,some areas no longer accepted exploration or mining permit application,banned mining projet completely for the sake of environmental protection. Therefore,a lot of people mistake resource development and utilization for the chief culprit of pollution. These measures blocked the transformation of resource advantage into economic advantage in above areas which cry out for getting rid of economic difficulties. Actually, we can achieve clean utilization of resource and enjoy convenience as well as comfortable environment. Only the construction of green mines can coordinate development between resource exploitation and environment protection.

  On the other hand, mining had a rapid and significant development in past 10 years, while the environment were under great pressure at the same time. As Jiang Daming, the minister of Ministry of Land and Resources, said on this year's national land and resources working conference, "In the view of environment and resource restriction, bearing capacity is close to superior limit, stringent protection and economical use of land and resources is an irresistable trend. In the past, resource and environment space is relatively large, the exploitation of land and mineral resources had a controlled impact on environment. But now, bearing capacity of resource and environment in many areas has reached or nearly reached the limit,constant large-scale intensive exploration will only cause troubles...we should take overall consideration of land and resources exploration and ecological environment protection."

  In conclusion, the construction of green mines is urgently necessary.

  [发展历程]从萌芽到星火燎原

  绿色矿山建设起初只是企业的自律行为,尚处于萌芽状态。在此情势下,2007年,国土资源部会同国家相关部门确定了绿色矿山格局的战略目标并出台了具体工作指导意见。在此之后的2011年3月,国土资源部公布了首批37家绿色矿山试点单位。2012年4月,国土资源部再次公布了第二批共183家绿色矿山试点单位。此后的2013年、2014年,国土资源部又分别公布了第三批、第四批的绿色矿山试点单位。截至目前,我国共有661家国家级绿色矿山试点单位,其中有35家已通过验收,圆满完成了绿色矿山试点建设的目标任务。除此之外,一些省份也在积极探索省级绿色矿山试点,并取得了良好效果。

  虽然绿色矿山建设还存在一些问题,但随着一批批绿色矿山试点单位的推出以及试点经验的进一步推广,绿色矿山正在加快建设步伐,呈现出“星火燎原”之势。与此同时,绿色矿山的条件和标准正逐步上升为管理制度,严格准入和监管,建设模式正日趋成熟。

  Development history : From tiny bud to full-grown tree

  In 2007, the green mine construction which was only regarded as self-discipline behavior of enterprise at first, is still in its infancy. In this situation, Ministry of Land and Resources together with related national departments determined the strategic goal of green mines pattern and work out specific guidance. The first 37 pilot green mines were released in March 2011 by Ministry of Land and Resources while the second 183 unit in April 2012,the third and forth unit in 2014.

  So far, there are 661 state-level pilot green mines in our country, 35 of them have passed the acceptance and completed construction objectives. In addition,some provinces also explore provincial pilot green mines actively, and have achieved good effects.

  Although the green mine construction still faces some problems, it speed the construction pace leading to become more and more flourishing as subsequent pilot units are launched and experiences are popularized. The conditions and criterions of green mines rise to management system step by step. Construction patterns become more mature.

  [政策支撑]整体框架清晰明确

  Policy support : Clear framework

  Policy support : Clear framework

  In 2009, National development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Land and Resources jointly issued the National Mineral Resources Planning (2008 ~ 2015), put forward clear requirements for green mine development, and determine a strategic goal that establishing basic green mine pattern in 2020.

  In order to fully apply the plan,the Ministry of Land and Resources issued a specific guidance on developing and construct green mine which defined the general idea and basic principles further on August 13 2010.

  The general idea is to further carry out the Scientific Outlook on Development, to take the development and construction of green mine as an important method to guarantee healthy and sustainable mining development according to the national strategic requirements, to implement the objectives and requirements in the national mineral resources planning earnestly,to insist overall planning, policy set, pilot projects before launching all-round reforms and pushing forward reform as a whole, to change the way of mining development through green mine construction, to put in a place long-term mechanism to standardize order in the exploitation of mineral resources.

  There are four basic principles. The first one is insisting on government's lead, to carry out pilot projects and green mine construction standardization system. The second one is implementing corporate responsibility, to encourage companies to perform social obligations such as building up scientific development view. The third one is strengthening industry self-discipline,to give full play to industry association as a bridge and bond between mining enterprises. The fourth one is doing policy supporting well, to enact policy measures to promote reasonable utilization of resources and environmental protection.

  [战略意义]转变发展方式的途径

  [战略意义]转变发展方式的途径

  我国当前正处于工业化城镇化加快发展的关键阶段,资源需求刚性上升,资源环境压力日益增大。因此,发展绿色矿业、建设绿色矿山便成为贯彻落实科学发展观、推动经济发展方式转变的必然选择。

  以资源合理利用、节能减排、保护生态环境和促进矿地和谐为主要目标,将绿色矿业理念贯穿于矿产资源开发利用全过程,推行循环经济发展模式,实现资源开发的经济效益、生态效益和社会效益协调统一,这是加快转变矿业发展方式的现实途径。

  发展绿色矿业、建设绿色矿山,关键在于充分调动矿山企业的积极性,加强行业自律。建设绿色矿山是矿山企业经营管理方式的一次变革,是落实企业责任加强行业自律、保证矿业健康发展的重要手段。

  Strategic significance : To realize mining development transition

  China is now at a key stage of industrialization and urbanization, while resource rigid demand and environment pressure increase. The development and construction of green mine is an inevitable choice for carrying out the scientific outlook on development and transforming the economic development pattern.

  To realize mining development transition, we should make rational utilization of resources, energy saving and emission reduction, environmental protection and harmonious mine lot as the main target, let the concept of green mining throughout the course of mineral resources explitation, push recycling economy development model, realize the coordination of economic benefits, ecological benefits and social benefits of resources exploitation.

  The key matter of develop green mine is to fully arouse the enthusiasm of mining enterprises, to strengthen industry self-discipline. Green mine is a revolution of mining enterprises operation and management mode, is an important means to guarantee the healthy development of mining industry.

  [建设目标]到2020年形成绿色格局

  [建设目标]到2020年形成绿色格局

  根据国土资源部的规划,下一步将建立完善的绿色矿山标准体系和管理制度,并研究形成配套绿色矿山建设的激励政策。到2020年,全国绿色矿山格局基本形成,大中型矿山基本达到绿色矿山标准,小型矿山企业按照绿色矿山条件严格规范管理。资源集约节约利用水平显著提高,矿山环境得到有效保护,矿区土地复垦水平全面提升,矿山企业与地方和谐发展。

  虽然绿色矿山建设经过近几年的发展,国土资源部已经推出了四批共661家绿色矿山试点单位,但相较于庞大的矿山数量,绿色矿山试点单位所占比例并不高,要实现到2020年基本形成全国绿色矿山格局,仍然是任重而道远。

  Construction objective : Form national green mine pattern in 2020

  To establish a perfect green mine standards system and management system, to form a complete set of incentives. By 2020, we will generally formed the national green mining pattern, large and medium sized mining basicly achieve green standards, small mining enterprises conduct standardized management in accordance with the conditions of green mine. The level of economical and intensive use of resouce improve significantly, environmental protection of mines would be in effect,mine land reclamation level increase, mining enterprises and local government get along in harmony.

  Although the green mine construction passed through several years that Ministry of Land and Resources has launched four group, a total of 661 pilot green mine. But compared with the large number of mines, pilot proportion of green mine is not still not enough. There will a long way to go before form a pattern of the green mining in 2020.

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